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Ethnicity pay gap

As part of our ongoing commitment to equal opportunity and transparency, we are publishing our ethnicity pay gap data for the second time. We strive to recognise and reward the contribution of our staff fairly, and it is important that we are transparent in how we do this. Acknowledging and tackling the ethnicity pay gap is an important part of improving diversity and inclusion at the University.

Each year we report on pay differentials within our staff community by reference to ethnicity. For 2021, the ethnicity pay gap findings report gaps in favour of white staff compared to BAME staff. This year, we are setting out the latest results and comparing them to previous years where that information is available. We are also reporting on the progress we are making to eradicate these differences where it is possible to do so. These actions and initiatives are implemented through university-wide and more local departmental plans.

We remain committed to continuing to make progress to address differences in pay.

2021 report

Our staff profile

This is our second ethnicity pay gap report. It is based on a snapshot of information from the month ending 31 March 2020, and comprises the self-declared ethnicity of 3,313 staff with 699 BAME (Black, Asian, Minority, Ethnic), 2,482 white and 132 refused/unknown records. For simplicity in reporting comparator results, this latter group are excluded from the reporting outcomes that follow. We continue to welcome individuals to declare this information. Even though our HESA records demonstrate higher rates of declaration than average, we understand that with this awareness we'd make even more informed decisions.

Compared to 2020, this dataset is bigger by 93 individuals and gives a 1% increase in BAME, 1% decrease in white staff recorded and no change to refused/unknown. The use of the BAME group allows us to draw a comparator to staff recorded as white. When examining differentials in pay, it is important to consider the different ethnicities recorded within this BAME group in order to ensure we better understand staff experiences.

The total population of 3,313 individuals reflect the diverse range of employment options recorded for individuals in March 2020, with 1,980 (60%) holding substantive appointments and 1,333 (40%) holding a mix of substantive and atypical (visiting lecturer, casual) appointments. Therefore, to better understand what actions will help us reduce gaps within the University, we also calculate our findings by individual School or professional services department.

There is no statutory requirement to report ethnicity pay gaps but we elect to do so to help us address differences in pay. The methodology used is based on the statutory model for gender pay gap reporting and calculates rates of pay and bonus within quartile pay bands. It is not the same as reporting equal pay which examines remuneration by the value of like for like (or similar) work. We are in the process of compiling a separate report on equal pay which is scheduled to be published by the end of 2021.

Compared to last year's data, we can see the proportions of BAME and white staff have remained much the same (+1%, -1%) although there are some fluctuations in the quartile bands. Compared to 2020, this report includes a higher proportion of BAME staff in the lower (30%, +4%),upper middle (22%, +1%) and upper pay (15%, +3%) quartiles. There has been a reduction of the proportion of BAME staff in the lower middle (17%, -3%) quartile. By contrast, and again compared to 2020, this report shows, as the proportions of undeclared records are unchanged, that changes for BAME staff are reversed by the same proportions in each quartile for white staff.

The dataset reflects total increases of 93 individuals, comprising 20 BAME staff in the lower pay quartiles and 49 BAME staff in the upper quartiles. There are 25 white staff in the lower pay and eight more white staff in the upper pay quartiles, with nine fewer individuals recorded as unknown. There is no target to change overall representation by ethnicity, although the University has targets in place to increase both teaching and senior graded BAME staff.

Due to the reporting period, the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic in terms of staffing will be considered in the next annual report.

Breakdown by quartile band

Quartile bandWhiteBAMERefused/unknownTotal
Lower553 (67%)245 (30%)31 (3%)829
Lower Middle640 (77%)142 (17%)45 (6%)827
Upper Middle614 (74%)186 (22%)28 (4%)828
Upper675 (81%)126 (15%)28 (4%)829
Grand total2,482 (75%)699 (21%)132 (4%)3,313
Quartile bandWhiteBAMERefused/unknownTotal
Lower570 (71%)210 (26%)25 (3%)805
Lower Middle598 (74%)157 (20%)52 (6%)807
Upper Middle604 (75%)165 (21%)35 (4%)804
Upper677 (84%)98 (12%)29 (4%)804
Grand total2,449 (76%)630 (20%)141 (4%)3,220

Our ethnicity pay data

The difference between BAME and white staff average rates of pay

Rate of pay2021
Mean (average)
2021
Median (middle)
Hourly rate of pay 13.26% 11.11%
Bonus pay paid 28.19% 0.00%

The proportion of white and BAME paid a bonus

Ethnicity20212020
BAME51.30%53.88%
White 68.50%70.73%

The results demonstrate pay gaps in favour of white and not BAME staff.

When compared to 2020, the report for 2021 sets out reductions in the total mean (13.26%, -1.86%) and median (11.11%, -0.38%) pay gaps, thus narrowing the respective differences to 87p and 89p for BAME staff for every £1 of white staff earnings.

The mean hourly rate of pay for BAME staff is £20.48, whereas it is £23.61 for white staff - a difference of £3.13. The median hourly rate of pay for BAME staff is £19.12, whereas it is £21.51 for white staff - a difference of £2.39. These differences reflect the roles and pay grades held by individuals.

The mean bonus pay gap of 28.19% results in 72p for BAME staff for every £1 of white staff bonus pay. This is a reduction in that gap of 9.53% compared to 2020. The mean average bonus pay for BAME staff is £151.17, whereas it is £210.52 for white staff. The median for bonus pay remains again at 0% due to the voucher payment to staff made in December.

This report also records (when compared to 2020) a reduction of 2.58% of the proportion of BAME staff receiving bonus pay, whereas there is a reduction of 2.23% of the proportion of white staff.

Closing the gap

While the reasons for pay gaps might be linked to past practices and require detailed understanding as well as complex strategies, this second year of reporting records progress in closing both pay and bonus pay gaps. Our ongoing work on addressing gender pay gaps allows us to undertake detailed, intersectional analyses to support putting in place actions and initiatives to further reduce gaps.

We understand that of the 3,313 individuals included in this dataset, white males are most likely to receive the highest average rates of pay. There are 409 individuals recorded as both BAME and female. They are most likely to receive the lowest average rates of pay. For this latter group, 73 are recorded as paid at national minimum wage where there are 11 recorded as paid at senior managerial/academic manager rates of pay. The group comprises 53% professional services and 47% academic, including research staff. We know we must examine staff profiles in the jobs we provide and structures we operate. This will help us address differentials across all areas and at all levels in the University.

Some of the gap will be addressed by recruiting more teaching and more senior BAME staff but this alone will not achieve the real change we want to see.

Detailed results are calculated for each School of Study and professional services department, and reported locally so they can be considered when acting on staffing strategies to meet our key performance indicators.

In the reporting period for 2021, those actions included individual strategic business units (often working in conjunction with their equality, diversity and inclusion teams) to progressing initiatives, including tailored positive action statements when advertising vacancies, anonymised shortlisting and increased diversity of interview panels. We survey staff regularly to understand the staff experience and to enable us to improve our many practices, including through appraisals. Both regular and bespoke development opportunities are available, including mandatory equality, diversity and inclusion training for everyone. Progression schemes have been introduced and we have been increasing access to mentoring and coaching.

All strategic business units have contributed to the Race Equality Charter Mark (RECM) submission. In addition, each were invited to endorse applications to take part in the Advance Higher Education Diversifying Leadership Programme. The Schools are engaged with work to decolonise curricula. Every strategic business unit has an equality, diversity and inclusion team in place, and the University provides support to the BAME staff network. The last year has seen the promotion and launch of a BAME reverse mentoring scheme.

Some selected examples include:

  • School of Education have held focus groups to better understand race and ethnicity issues leading to team teaching to enhance student participation, as well as working in greater partnership with the Student Experience team
  • Estates have set up, and are active in their own BAME network, to encourage positivity and participation in career progression for staff in Estates and in their contract partnerships
  • Finance have advertised posts in areas with higher ethnic minority populations
  • Human Resources put in place a dedicated team to progress the RECM submission, resulting in rolling out a comprehensive range of initiatives, including a forecasting tool to help recruiting managers understand the staffing profiles required to achieve our equality, diversity and inclusion objectives
  • The School of Life and Medical Sciences have developed a framework to appoint PhD students in areas of underrepresentation, as well as investing in race equality training.

2020 report

Our staff profile

The data in this report is based on a snapshot of information from the month ending 31 March 2019. This year’s report includes a total of 3,220 staff, with 2,449 white staff, 630 BAME (Black, Asian, Minority Ethnic) staff and 141 refused/unknown.

Breakdown by quartile band

Quartile bandWhiteBAMERefused/unknownTotal
Lower570 (71%)210 (26%)25 (3%)805
Lower Middle598 (74%)157 (20%)52 (6%)807
Upper Middle604 (75%)165 (21%)35 (4%)804
Upper677 (84%)98 (12%)29 (4%)804
Grand total2,449 (76%)630 (20%)141 (4%)3,220

Our ethnicity pay data

The difference between white and BAME staff average rates of pay

Rate of pay Mean
(average)
Median
(middle)
Hourly rate of pay 15.12% 11.49%
Bonus pay paid 37.72% 0.00%

Proportion of white and BAME paid a bonus

Ethnicity 2018-19
BAME 53.88%
White 70.73%

Our data shows that an ethnicity pay gap exists in both mean and median hourly rates of pay and mean bonus pay.

The mean hourly rate of pay for white staff is £22.91 and £19.44 for BAME. This is a difference of £3.47, which represents a 15.12% mean pay gap. The median hourly rate of pay for white staff is £20.68 and £18.30 for BAME. This is a difference of £2.38, which represents a 11.49% pay gap. 1,771 white staff and 347 BAME staff are eligible for bonus pay. The mean bonus pay amount for white staff is £288.90 and £179.93 for BAME. This is a difference of £108.97, which represents a 37.72% pay gap.

Closing the gap

The reasons for the ethnicity pay gap are complex, and often a result of historical factors. By committing to publish our ethnicity pay report annually, we will be better able to track trends and progress made across the University going forwards.

While recruiting more senior BAME staff will help reduce the pay gap, this alone will not achieve the real change we want to see. Initiatives that have been successful in addressing our gender pay gap can also be beneficial in reducing our ethnicity pay gap.

The University’s initiatives to reduce the ethnicity pay gap will include:

  • developing, appraising and retaining our existing staff and ensure there is diversity at senior leadership and management levels
  • continued annual and monthly report and analysis of University and department staffing by ethnicity, including application, shortlisting and appointment activity
  • increasing senior BAME staff (UH9 or above) to 16%
  • increasing BAME teaching staff to 25%
  • retaining the Race Equality Charter Mark
  • launching a BAME mentoring scheme, with a commitment from our senior leadership who will participate as mentors
  • giving staff the opportunity to attend the Advance HE Diversifying Leadership programme
  • ensure all staff participate in our continuous professional development programmes
  • working in partnership with key stakeholders, including trade unions and the BAME staff network.
As part of launching the University's Strategic Plan for 2020-2025, our people and values strand to transform lives reaffirmed our commitments to our student and staff community by: providing opportunities to attract, retain and develop individuals, building a diverse and inclusive community, and responding with flexibility to the challenges of the changing world. I am therefore pleased to receive these latest pay gap reports which demonstrate the progress we are making in supporting our diverse staff community to develop and progress their careers.

Professor Quintin McKellar CBE

Vice Chancellor and Chief Executive

The report has been approved by the Chief Executive Group and the Board of Governors.

The report date reflects when the information is published, but the dataset used for reporting is taken from the previous year. For example, we are releasing our 2021 pay gap reports based on data captured in March 2020 covering the preceding 12 months. This reporting schedule is determined by the requirement to properly report all relevant pay.