Documents

Gender and Ethnicity pay gap

Our vision to transform lives reflects the ambitions and inspiration that is central to the University and is built on the belief that whatever your background, wherever you are from, we will power the potential of our staff, driving them to succeed.

We are committed to addressing our gender and ethnicity pay gaps to ensure we attract, reward and retain our staff to make their lives better.

We are pleased that we are reducing the ethnicity pay gap but we have a long way to go to improve the diversity across our staff population at all levels, further improving both gender and ethnicity pay gaps. Through initiatives by all our strategic business units we are confident these changes will create pay equality in the workplace.

Pay gap reporting is different to reporting equal pay. The former calculate rates of pay and bonus within staff quartiles whereas the latter analyses the equality of pay in relation to the same or similar work.

This reporting period focuses on pay data for the month ending 31 March 2021, so the results reflect changes to staffing linked to Covid-19.  We examined the pay of 3,097 individuals.

Gender pay gap

Each year, in line with statutory requirements, we report on pay differentials within our staff community by gender. For 2022, the overall gender pay gap findings report gaps in favour of male staff compared to female staff. Those gaps are continuing to reduce when compared to previous years.

Our staff profile

This report is based on pay data for the month ending 31 March 2021. There is a small increase (less than 1%) in the proportion of female staff when compared to last year. This year our total number of staff is 3,097 which is 216 less than last year.

Breakdown by quartile band

Quartile bandFemaleMaleTotal
Lower562 (72%)214 (28%)776
Lower Middle450 (58%)325 (42%)775
Upper Middle426 (55%)347 (45%)773
Upper416 (54%)357 (46%)773
Grand total1,854 (60%)1,243 (40%)3,097
Quartile bandFemaleMaleTotal
Lower538 (65%)291 (35%)829
Lower Middle521 (63%)306 (37%)827
Upper Middle459 (55%)369 (45%)826
Upper423 (51%)406 (49%)829
Grand total1,941 (59%)1,372 (41%)3,313
Quartile bandFemaleMaleTotal
Lower573 (71%)232 (29%)805
Lower Middle503 (62%)304 (38%)807
Upper Middle451 (56%)353 (44%)804
Upper425 (53%)379 (47%)804
Grand total1,952 (61%)1,268 (39%)3,220
Quartile bandFemaleMaleTotal
Lower571 (69%)256 (31%)827
Lower Middle524 (63%)302 (37%)826
Upper Middle478 (58%)348 (42%)826
Upper435 (53%)391 (47%)826
Grand total2,008 (61%1,297 (39%)3,305
Quartile bandFemaleMaleTotal
Lower516 (69%)232 (31%)748
Lower Middle482 (64%)266 (36%)748
Upper Middle431 (58%)317 (42%)748
Upper384 (51%)363 (49%)747
Grand total1,813 (61%)1,178 (39%)2,991

Reporting the quartile bands for staff have provided an important comparator. For 2022, when compared to 2021, we see by proportion 7% more females in the lower band, 5% fewer in the lower middle, and 3% more in the upper with upper middle staying the same. As the proportion of male staff in the higher paying bands is more than the total population, male staff are more likely to be in higher graded posts with better rates of pay.

Our gender pay data

The difference between female and male staff average rates of pay

Rate of pay2022
Mean (average)
2022
Median (middle)
Hourly rate of pay 10.30%11.21%
Bonus pay paid 0.30%0.00%

The results this year demonstrate pay gaps in favour of male staff other than for median bonus which is the same for both genders due to the effect of a Christmas bonus payment.

The mean pay gap of 10.30% arises from a hourly rate of £25.10 for males compared to £22.51 for females (a difference of £2.59).  This means for every £1 earned by male staff, a female earned 89.7p. This is an improvement of 0.15% for female staff when compared to last year.

The median pay gap of 11.21% arises from a hourly rate of £23.52 for males compared to £20.88 for females (a difference of £2.64). This means for every £1 earned by male staff, a female earned 88.8p. This is an improvement of 3.12% for female staff when compared to last year.

The mean bonus pay gap of 0.30% reflects a difference in average bonus pay of 53p in favour of male staff (£181.10 compared to £180.56). Last year we reported a gap in favour of female staff and the change is due to the allocation of bonus payments to different individuals and for different amounts. The median bonus pay gap remains as expected at 0%.

Proportion of males and females paid a bonus

Gender202220212020 20192018
Female75.8% 65.20%66.66%63.60%68.30%
Male79.2% 61.20%66.27%63.10%69.90%

Staff included in this report were more likely to receive bonus pay when compared to previous years. This is linked in part to some lower staff turnover and fewer hourly paid opportunities during the height of the Covid-19 pandemic and lockdown periods.

There were 2,542 individuals receiving bonus pay (primarily the Christmas bonus scheme which is not immediately open to new starters) and with 1,049 male staff, this accounted for 41.3% which is an excess of 1.3% when compared to what would be expected by the total population included in this report.

Our staff profile

This latest report is based on pay data for the month ending 31 March 2020 and comprises 1,941 (59%) female and 1,372 (41%) male staff. There is a 2% increase in male staff reported here.

The total population of 3,313 individuals reflects the diverse range of employment options recorded for individuals in March 2020, with 1,980 (60%) holding substantive appointments and 1,333 (40%) holding a mix of substantive and atypical (visiting lecturer, casual) appointments. Therefore, to better understand what actions will help us reduce gaps within the University, we also calculate our findings by individual School of Study or professional services department.

When we report on gender pay gaps it is important to note there are differences to reporting equal pay. The former calculates rates of pay and bonus within quartile pay bands, whereas the latter analyses the equality of pay in relation to the same or similar work. We are in the process of compiling a separate report on equal pay which is scheduled to be published later this year.

In the previous three years of reporting, the total proportions of female and male staff have remained the same, with some fluctuations in the quartile bands. Compared to 2020, this report includes a higher proportion of male staff (35%, +6%) in the lowest band but also increases in upper middle (45%, +1%) and upper (49%, +2%) pay quartiles. Male staff continue to be more likely to hold the highest graded posts.

Due to the reporting period, the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic in terms of staffing will be considered in the next annual report.

Breakdown by quartile band

Quartile bandFemaleMaleTotal
Lower538 (65%)291 (35%)829
Lower Middle521 (63%)306 (37%)827
Upper Middle459 (55%)369 (45%)826
Upper423 (51%)406 (49%)829
Grand total1,941 (59%)1,372 (41%)3,313
Quartile bandFemaleMaleTotal
Lower573 (71%)232 (29%)805
Lower Middle503 (62%)304 (38%)807
Upper Middle451 (56%)353 (44%)804
Upper425 (53%)379 (47%)804
Grand total1,952 (61%)1,268 (39%)3,220
Quartile bandFemaleMaleTotal
Lower571 (69%)256 (31%)827
Lower Middle524 (63%)302 (37%)826
Upper Middle478 (58%)348 (42%)826
Upper435 (53%)391 (47%)826
Grand total2,008 (61%1,297 (39%)3,305
Quartile bandFemaleMaleTotal
Lower516 (69%)232 (31%)748
Lower Middle482 (64%)266 (36%)748
Upper Middle431 (58%)317 (42%)748
Upper384 (51%)363 (49%)747
Grand total1,813 (61%)1,178 (39%)2,991

Our gender pay data

The difference between female and male staff average rates of pay

Rate of pay2021
Mean (average)
2021
Median (middle)
Hourly rate of pay 10.45% 14.33%
Bonus pay paid -6.63% 0.00%

Proportion of males and females paid a bonus

Gender20212020 20192018
Female 65.20%66.66%63.60%68.30%
Male 61.20%66.27%63.10%69.90%

The results demonstrate pay gaps in favour of male staff, other than for mean bonus pay which is higher on average for female staff.

When compared to 2020, the report for 2021 sets out reductions in the total mean (10.45%, -2.29%) and median (14.33%, -1.86%) pay gaps, thus narrowing the respective differences to 90p and 86p for females for every £1 of male staff earnings. The mean hourly rate of pay for female staff is £21.87, whereas it is £24.42 for male staff – a difference of £2.55. The median hourly rate of pay for female staff is £19.21, whereas it is £22.42 for male staff – a difference of £3.21. These differences reflect the posts and pay grades held by individuals.

Due primarily to changes in the performance bonus payment scheme for senior staff, we are reporting, for the first time, a gap in favour of female staff of 94p for males for every £1 for female staff bonus pay. This is a change of 23.9% in favour of female staff compared to 2020. The mean average bonus pay for female staff is £204.52, whereas it is £191.80 for male staff. The median for bonus pay remains at 0% due to the voucher payment to staff made in December.

This report also records a reduction of 1.46% of the proportion of females receiving bonus pay with the difference at 5.1% being a more significant reduction for males.

Our staff profile

The data in this report is based on a snapshot of information from the month ending 31 March 2019. This year’s report includes a total of 3,220 staff, comprising of 1,952 (60.6%) female and 1,268 (39.4%) male staff.

There are differences between the gender pay gap and equal pay. The former calculates rates of pay and bonus within quartile pay bands, whereas the latter analyses the equality of pay in relation to the same or similar work. Differences in gender pay should be addressed where it is appropriate, and we will be publishing a separate report on equal pay later this year.

As in previous years, there are more female staff than male staff in total at the University and in each of the quartile bands. The number of female staff in the upper quartile pay band has decreased since 2018, but the proportion of female (53%) staff to male (47%) has remained the same. A higher proportion of male staff hold senior roles when compared to female.

Breakdown by quartile band

Quartile bandFemale%Male%Total
Lower5737123229805
Lower Middle5036230438807
Upper Middle4515635344804
Upper4255337947804
Grand total1,952611,268393,220
Quartile bandFemale%Male%Total
Lower5716925631827
Lower Middle5246330237826
Upper Middle4785834842826
Upper4355339147826
Grand total2,008611,297393,305
Quartile bandFemale%Male%Total
Lower5166923231748
Lower Middle4826426636748
Upper Middle4315831742748
Upper3845136349747
Grand total1,813611,178392,991

Our gender pay data

The difference between male and female staff pay

Rate of pay2018-19
Mean (average)
2018-19
Median (middle)
Hourly rate of pay12.74%16.19%
Bonus pay paid17.24%0.00%
Proportion of males and females paid a bonus2018-19
%
2017-2018
%
2016-2017
%
Female66.66%63.60%68.30%
Male66.27%63.10%69.90%

As of March 2019, our mean gender pay pap for hourly rates of pay is 12.74% and the median gender pay gap is 16.19%, maintaining a downward trend and reducing the gender pay gap since 2017. There has been a significant reduction in the mean bonus pay gap by 9.12%, which has been achieved in part by a thorough review of how we award bonuses. The proportion of eligible staff receiving a bonus has increased from last year, with marginally more female staff receiving a bonus than male.

The reasons for our gender pay gap are complex, often impacted by multiple historical factors. This year’s report includes 85 fewer staff compared to last year, of which 65.88% were female. We follow recruiting best practice and recruit new staff at the start of the pay scale which can have an impact on our pay gap. A higher reduction of female staff numbers and turnover of female staff onto a lower starting pay scale are contributing factors.

The mean hourly rate for male staff is £24.02 and £20.96 for females. This is a difference of £3.06, which represents 12.74% mean pay gap. The median hourly rate for male staff is £22.41 and £18.78 for females. This is a difference of £3.63 which represents a 16.19% median pay gap. The mean bonus pay amount for male staff is £297.97 and £246.59 for female. The difference of £51.38 represents 17.24% mean pay gap.

Ethnicity pay gap

We are reporting our third year of ethnicity pay gap information by comparing differentials between BAME and white staff from the same March 2021 pay dataset used for gender pay gap reporting. For 2022 the ethnicity pay gap reports differences in favour of white staff when compared to BAME staff, although these gaps are continuing to reduce.

Our staff profile

This report is based on pay data for the month ending 31 March 2021. We use the same dataset as gender pay gap reporting when examining our pay profiles within grades and departments.

These proportions for ethnicity are similar to last year’s report, although there are increases in both BAME and white individuals due in part to an improvement in reducing ‘unknown’ records. The University invites all individuals to provide this information to support our decision making. This report will focus practicably therefore on those staff who have provided information about their ethnicity.

Breakdown by quartile band

Quartile bandWhiteBAMERefused/
Unknown
Total
Lower559 (72%)191 (25%)26 (3%)776
Lower Middle579 (75%)168 (22%)28 (3%)775
Upper Middle572 (74%)175 (23%)26 (3%)773
Upper620 (80%)137 (18%)16 (2%)773
Grand total2,330 (75.3%)671 (21.7%)96 (3.0%)3,097

By reference to this dataset and for proportional purposes, we would expect to see fewer BAME staff at the lower, lower middle and upper middle pay quartiles. We would also expect to see 3.7% more BAME individuals in the upper pay quartile. There are however 5% fewer in the lower pay quartile and 3% more BAME staff in the upper pay quartile when compared to the previous year. There are also 4.7% more white staff in the upper pay quartile when compared to the total population. They are proportionately represented at lower middle and upper middle pay quartiles, which means they will be in higher grades and earning higher rates of pay when compared to BAME colleagues.

Quartile bandWhiteBAMERefused/unknownTotal
Lower553 (67%)245 (30%)31 (3%)829
Lower Middle640 (77%)142 (17%)45 (6%)827
Upper Middle614 (74%)186 (22%)28 (4%)828
Upper675 (81%)126 (15%)28 (4%)829
Grand total2,482 (75%)699 (21%)132 (4%)3,313
Quartile bandWhiteBAMERefused/unknownTotal
Lower570 (71%)210 (26%)25 (3%)805
Lower Middle598 (74%)157 (20%)52 (6%)807
Upper Middle604 (75%)165 (21%)35 (4%)804
Upper677 (84%)98 (12%)29 (4%)804
Grand total2,449 (76%)630 (20%)141 (4%)3,220

Our ethnicity pay data

The difference between BAME and white staff average rates of pay

Rate of pay2022
Mean (average)
2022
Median (middle)
Hourly rate of pay8.47%5.08%
Bonus pay paid24.63%0.00%

The results this year demonstrate pay gaps in favour of white staff when compared to BAME, other than for median bonus which is the same amount due to the effect of a Christmas bonus payment.

When compared to last year, the mean gap has reduced by 4.79% from 13.26%, and the median gap has reduced by 6.03% from 11.11%. The mean bonus gap has also reduced by 3.56% from 28.19% and the median bonus gap is unchanged at 0%.

The mean pay gap of 8.47% is due to differences in the hourly rate of pay. BAME staff earn on average £22.02 compared to white staff who earn £24.06, a difference of £2.04. Therefore, for every £1 earned by white staff, BAME colleagues earn 91.53p.

The median pay gap of 5.08% is also calculated by differences in the hourly rate of pay. BAME staff earn on average £20.91, compared to white staff earning £22.03, a difference of £1.12. Therefore, for every £1 earned by white staff, BAME colleagues earn 94.92p.

The mean bonus pay gap of 24.63% reflects a difference in average bonus pay of £47.11 (£191.30 compared to £144.19) in total in favour of white staff when compared to BAME colleagues.

The median bonus pay gap remains as expected at 0%.

The proportion of BAME and white staff paid a bonus

Ethnicity202220212020
BAME66.2%51.30%53.88%
White81.3%68.50%70.73%

The individuals included in this report are more likely to receive bonus pay compared to previous years. 469 BAME colleagues received a bonus payment compared to 2,015 white staff. Based on the total staff included in this report (discounting unknown staff) we should expect to see around 539 BAME staff receive a bonus payment. The reason BAME staff were disproportionately less likely to receive bonus pay is linked partly to time in post, and higher graded posts tending to pay a higher bonus.

Our staff profile

This is our second ethnicity pay gap report. It is based on a snapshot of information from the month ending 31 March 2020, and comprises the self-declared ethnicity of 3,313 staff with 699 BAME (Black, Asian, Minority, Ethnic), 2,482 white and 132 refused/unknown records. For simplicity in reporting comparator results, this latter group are excluded from the reporting outcomes that follow. We continue to welcome individuals to declare this information. Even though our HESA records demonstrate higher rates of declaration than average, we understand that with this awareness we'd make even more informed decisions.

Compared to 2020, this dataset is bigger by 93 individuals and gives a 1% increase in BAME, 1% decrease in white staff recorded and no change to refused/unknown. The use of the BAME group allows us to draw a comparator to staff recorded as white. When examining differentials in pay, it is important to consider the different ethnicities recorded within this BAME group in order to ensure we better understand staff experiences.

The total population of 3,313 individuals reflect the diverse range of employment options recorded for individuals in March 2020, with 1,980 (60%) holding substantive appointments and 1,333 (40%) holding a mix of substantive and atypical (visiting lecturer, casual) appointments. Therefore, to better understand what actions will help us reduce gaps within the University, we also calculate our findings by individual School or professional services department.

There is no statutory requirement to report ethnicity pay gaps but we elect to do so to help us address differences in pay. The methodology used is based on the statutory model for gender pay gap reporting and calculates rates of pay and bonus within quartile pay bands. It is not the same as reporting equal pay which examines remuneration by the value of like for like (or similar) work. We are in the process of compiling a separate report on equal pay which is scheduled to be published by the end of 2021.

Compared to last year's data, we can see the proportions of BAME and white staff have remained much the same (+1%, -1%) although there are some fluctuations in the quartile bands. Compared to 2020, this report includes a higher proportion of BAME staff in the lower (30%, +4%),upper middle (22%, +1%) and upper pay (15%, +3%) quartiles. There has been a reduction of the proportion of BAME staff in the lower middle (17%, -3%) quartile. By contrast, and again compared to 2020, this report shows, as the proportions of undeclared records are unchanged, that changes for BAME staff are reversed by the same proportions in each quartile for white staff.

The dataset reflects total increases of 93 individuals, comprising 20 BAME staff in the lower pay quartiles and 49 BAME staff in the upper quartiles. There are 25 white staff in the lower pay and eight more white staff in the upper pay quartiles, with nine fewer individuals recorded as unknown. There is no target to change overall representation by ethnicity, although the University has targets in place to increase both teaching and senior graded BAME staff.

Due to the reporting period, the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic in terms of staffing will be considered in the next annual report.

Breakdown by quartile band

Quartile bandWhiteBAMERefused/unknownTotal
Lower553 (67%)245 (30%)31 (3%)829
Lower Middle640 (77%)142 (17%)45 (6%)827
Upper Middle614 (74%)186 (22%)28 (4%)828
Upper675 (81%)126 (15%)28 (4%)829
Grand total2,482 (75%)699 (21%)132 (4%)3,313
Quartile bandWhiteBAMERefused/unknownTotal
Lower570 (71%)210 (26%)25 (3%)805
Lower Middle598 (74%)157 (20%)52 (6%)807
Upper Middle604 (75%)165 (21%)35 (4%)804
Upper677 (84%)98 (12%)29 (4%)804
Grand total2,449 (76%)630 (20%)141 (4%)3,220

Our ethnicity pay data

The difference between BAME and white staff average rates of pay

Rate of pay2021
Mean (average)
2021
Median (middle)
Hourly rate of pay13.26%11.11%
Bonus pay paid28.19%0.00%

The proportion of BAME and white staff paid a bonus

Ethnicity20212020
BAME51.30%53.88%
White68.50%70.73%

The results demonstrate pay gaps in favour of white and not BAME staff.

When compared to 2020, the report for 2021 sets out reductions in the total mean (13.26%, -1.86%) and median (11.11%, -0.38%) pay gaps, thus narrowing the respective differences to 87p and 89p for BAME staff for every £1 of white staff earnings.

The mean hourly rate of pay for BAME staff is £20.48, whereas it is £23.61 for white staff - a difference of £3.13. The median hourly rate of pay for BAME staff is £19.12, whereas it is £21.51 for white staff - a difference of £2.39. These differences reflect the roles and pay grades held by individuals.

The mean bonus pay gap of 28.19% results in 72p for BAME staff for every £1 of white staff bonus pay. This is a reduction in that gap of 9.53% compared to 2020. The mean average bonus pay for BAME staff is £151.17, whereas it is £210.52 for white staff. The median for bonus pay remains again at 0% due to the voucher payment to staff made in December.

This report also records (when compared to 2020) a reduction of 2.58% of the proportion of BAME staff receiving bonus pay, whereas there is a reduction of 2.23% of the proportion of white staff.

Our staff profile

The data in this report is based on a snapshot of information from the month ending 31 March 2019. This year’s report includes a total of 3,220 staff, with 2,449 white staff, 630 BAME (Black, Asian, Minority Ethnic) staff and 141 refused/unknown.

Breakdown by quartile band

Quartile bandWhiteBAMERefused/unknownTotal
Lower570 (71%)210 (26%)25 (3%)805
Lower Middle598 (74%)157 (20%)52 (6%)807
Upper Middle604 (75%)165 (21%)35 (4%)804
Upper677 (84%)98 (12%)29 (4%)804
Grand total2,449 (76%)630 (20%)141 (4%)3,220

Our ethnicity pay data

The difference between BAME and white staff average rates of pay

Rate of payMean
(average)
Median
(middle)
Hourly rate of pay15.12%11.49%
Bonus pay paid37.72%0.00%

Proportion of BAME and white staff paid a bonus

Ethnicity2018-19
BAME53.88%
White70.73%

Our data shows that an ethnicity pay gap exists in both mean and median hourly rates of pay and mean bonus pay.

The mean hourly rate of pay for white staff is £22.91 and £19.44 for BAME. This is a difference of £3.47, which represents a 15.12% mean pay gap. The median hourly rate of pay for white staff is £20.68 and £18.30 for BAME. This is a difference of £2.38, which represents a 11.49% pay gap. 1,771 white staff and 347 BAME staff are eligible for bonus pay. The mean bonus pay amount for white staff is £288.90 and £179.93 for BAME. This is a difference of £108.97, which represents a 37.72% pay gap.

It is pleasing to receive these latest pay gap reports which demonstrate the ongoing progress we are making to reduce pay differentials and support our staff to benefit from long term, rewarding careers with the University.

Professor Quintin McKellar CBE

Vice Chancellor and Chief Executive

Closing the gap

Pay gaps are created by complex matters and linked to many factors including historical, societal and organisational reasons. Reducing such differentials is therefore proving to require a range of strategies to try to ensure ongoing progress.

We are required to report our gender pay gap and have elected to also report on the ethnicity pay gap. We do so annually and acknowledge closing these gaps is taking time to do since first reporting for 2017. We separately examine our pay structures by looking at equal pay.

Across the University we have been undertaking more work to reduce difference – for example on ensuring diverse shortlisting and interview panels, conducting racial injustice training and completing the first cohort of a BAME mentoring scheme. We have conducted a review of our equality, diversity and inclusion training for probation periods. Staff from across the University have worked on a successful submission to hold the Race Equality Charter Mark and we have retained our Athena Swan status at School and University levels.

We provide each strategic business unit (School or professional services department) with their own detailed results. This information supports them to review all their current staff, including the intersectional profile, to inform the initiatives and actions they have put in place. For this report, comprising 3,097 individuals across the University, there are 1,854 female staff of whom 392 identify as BAME and 1,243 male staff, of whom 279 identify as BAME. We also examine grades and job types for all staff.

When reporting results by gender at strategic business unit level, less than half of the 18 business units report total mean or median results in favour of females. Although in half, the mean bonus gap results are in favour of females. When reporting results by ethnicity at strategic business unit level the mean pay gap is in favour of white staff in all but two of the 18. This changes to three of the 18 for the median pay results. The mean bonus gap is in favour of BAME staff in seven strategic business units.

The University’s strategic business units and equality, diversity and inclusion teams and their Human Resource Business Partners examine staffing by gender and ethnicity to put in place activities that might address under representation such as supporting staff to attend Advance HE development programmes, ensuring recruitment panel diversity and running career development workshops. There are examples of good practices across the University. Some highlights include the:

  • Academic Registry running local EDI events
  • Hertfordshire Business School providing pre and post progression round coaching and mentoring support to existing staff
  • Hertfordshire Law School managing gender balance on recruitment panels as well as providing financial and practical support to existing staff to study
  • Library and Computing Services developing a recruitment handbook as well as reviewing where posts are advertised externally
  • Life and Medical Sciences sharing themed grants calls in order to support flexible working practices
  • Engineering and Computer Science focussing on career development activities in areas such as appraisal, evaluation and workshops.

We understand it will take time to address under-representation particularly at senior levels, where there is low staff turnover, and in certain disciplines where the external labour market is not diverse. These activities to address pay differentials are often intersectional and help us progress other University equality, diversity and inclusion objectives for staff.

Documents

The report has been approved by the Chief Executive Group and the Board of Governors.

The report date reflects when the information is published, but the dataset used for reporting is taken from the previous year. For example, we are releasing our 2022 pay gap reports based on data captured in March 2021 covering the preceding 12 months. This reporting schedule is determined by the requirement to properly report all relevant pay.